Without additional training of staff, transparent and accountable public procedures, and ongoing learning and improvement, it is unlikely that real-world application of responsive regulation will live up to its theoretical promises. Indeed, the escalation to a more formal stance can easily “backfire once a certain threshold of formalism has been reached”. This finding is, of course, not surprising. Enhanced enforcement outcomes through a responsive regulation approach to sales tax enforcement. At that point, responsive regulation means that escalation up the pyramid is put into reverse and the regulator de-escalates down the pyramid. In addition, in ten cases scholars report that the performance of responsive regulation is highly dependent on how it is implemented by (individual) regulators and how it is experienced by (individual) targets of regulation, how it interacts with other regulatory reforms that were implemented in parallel, or that responsive regulation did not perform better or worse than the alternative strategies. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Responsive regulation involves listening to multiple stakeholders and making a deliberative and flexible (responsive) choice from regulatory strategies that can be conceptually arranged in a pyramid. Staff needs training, targets of regulation need explanation, and agencies need alignment of how responsive regulation is operationalised in practice. Figure 1: Example of a Regulatory Pyramid for Decision-Making in Child Protection A number of scholars have applied responsive regulation to child protection (see Adams, The elements of responsiveness, difficult to produce at the primary level [street level], are even more difficult to produce at secondary [entities and activities that create and maintain infrastructure (the rating and certification bodies) and entities such as courts that hear appeals] and tertiary [policy making] levels”. Whether does responsive regulation (on average) outperform alternative regulatory strategies (i.e., traditional government-led command and control regulation, or laissez-faire market competition)? [vi] Mascini, P., & van Wijk, E. (2009). Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. In sum, in applying the regulatory pyramids, the main challenge is the shifting between different regulatory actors: “Attractive as the theory of responsive regulation is at the primary, interactional level … it does not get us as far when we consider the effects of shared and interlocking jurisdictions in multi-level regulatory systems. The aim is to apply escalating regulatory interventions from non-penal actions through to punitive responses. The most distinctive part of responsive regulation is the regulatory pyra- mid. Also, without explaining what a responsive process entails, there is a risk of a “vicious circle of antagonism”[vi] if regulators follow responsive regulation to the letter: harsh enforcement of already sceptic targets of regulation will likely make them even more sceptic. Otherwise, there is a risk of inconsistency in enforcement, favouritism, abuse of process, uneven application of law, or rule ambiguity. In such contexts the “more reasonable and regulatee-friendly approach” suggested by responsive regulation may backfire as targets of regulation may see the regulator as weak and easy to manipulate. Beginning with the Australian Tax Office’s shift from a deterrence approach to a “compliance model” of tax enforcement in the 1990s, governments and revenue authorities in several developed countries have introduced legislative and administrative reforms based on the central insights of a “responsive regulatory pyramid”. At the bottom of the pyramid are more frequently used strategies of first choice that are less coercive, less interventionist, and cheaper. This blog post probably has the highest information density that I have pulled together thus far. Key elements of responsive regulation … International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 29(4), 379-400. This also holds for cases with negative or unclear performance: the observed performance is only reported in qualitative terms. Is enforced self-regulation a form of risk taking? It is therefore good to end with a few major lessons from the literature that help us to see the forest for the trees: [i] Christian, C. (2017). Combining law and economics with socio-legal studies, the book deals with a dynamic and gradual sanctioning regime known as the enforcement pyramid and favors the inclusion of third-party … The Fundamentals of Responsive Regulation, Prior Scholarship on Regulatory Strategies, Mixing Regulatory Strategies in the Enforcement Pyramid, Additional Theoretical Components of Responsive Regulation, Examples of Responsive Regulation in Practice, Responsive Regulation Within the United States, Strengths and Weaknesses of the Responsive Approach, Settings Where Responsive Regulation May Not Be Appropriate, Weaknesses of the Overall Theory and the Enforcement Pyramid, Attempts to Address Weaknesses—Revisions and New Theories of Regulation. It refl ects only the responsive regulatory approach to the enforcementtof behavioural standards (as its original label accurately designated). Responsive regulation’s pyramid is only a partial representation of the regulatory possibilities. This allows him to draw lessons from New Zealand and elsewhere to improve New Zealand regulation and its impact on economic and social performance, and to showcase the state-of-the-art in regulatory practice in New Zealand to the rest of the world. Melissa Rorie, PhD, is Professor of Criminal Justice and Advisor of Criminal Justice Club at University of Nevada, Las Vegas. 4.10 One regulatory theory that has contributed to corporate law in Australiais 'responsive regulation' (also known as 'strategic regulation theory').This approach to regulation influenced the introduction in 1993 of the civil penaltyregime for contraventions of the statutory duties of company directors andother officers. ( Log Out /  Another risk of responsive regulation (particularly enforced self-regulation and other forms of delegated regulation) is that targets of regulation have “systems, rules and procedures demanded by regulatory law” in place but do not apply them, or do not have staff that understands how and why to apply them. Responsive regulation has been an influential policy idea because it comes up with a way of reconciling the clear empirical evidence that sometimes punishment works and sometimes it backfires, and likewise with persuasion (Ayres and Braithwaite, 1992, Braithwaite, 1985).The pyramidal presumption of persuasion gives the cheaper and more respectful option a chance to work first. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 22(8), 790-810. This synergistic approach encourages persuasion through [vii] Besides, in contexts where the rule of law is weak, targets of regulation may be regulator-driven rather than regulation-driven. APPLICATIONS OF RESPONSIVE REGULATORY THEORY IN AUSTRALIA AND OVERSEAS: UPDATE Mary Ivec and Valerie Braithwaite with Charlotte Wood and Jenny Job ( Log Out /  In sum, responsive regulation is much more than a theory. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 26(1), 95-112. Still, such a change in regulatory practice may result in a rapid breakdown of trust between regulators and their targets. Although responsive regulation includes much more than the enforcement pyramid, it is the pyramid that has received most attention from academics and practitioners. According to this approach, legal regulation is best modeled on a regulatory pyramid - with supportive measures designed to encourage compliance at the base of the pyramid and increasingly severe sanctions to discourage non-compliance as regulators escalate up the pyramid. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Time the start and escalation of the responsive regulation dialogue well. © Oxford University Press, 2018. For example, when bringing third-parties into a regulatory regime, regulators may have to explain how being involved is in their interest exactly. Regulators and their targets need to keep asking questions about. Responsive regulation theory claims that this pyramid of enforcement activates different (potentially contradictory) motivations so that they interact to support compliance, and discourage resistance, game-playing and abuse in two main ways: First, the application of the pyramid of enforcement strategies makes it beneficial for rationally calculating regulatees to be virtuous (Braithwaite 2002, p. 33). For more information Office of Transport Security (2008) Our Regulatory Philosophy, Department of Targets of regulation do not always understand or appreciate the purpose of a responsive regulation approach as a means for seeking compliance in collaboration with the regulators. A second recurring observation considers the transparency and clarity of the responsive regulation process and the regulatory dialogues involved—put simply, improved or simply more communication between regulators and their targets is by no means a guarantee for enhanced compliance. For third-parties, it is likely easier to observe highly visible but low-risk violations than invisible but high-risk violations. This could be simply because the easy cases take less effort to enforce (more bang for the buck), but also because there are legitimacy and accountability risks in more complex cases—i.e., regulators know they are more likely to slip up in such cases. See all articles by Belinda Reeve … Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). While the evidence base falls short of making a one-size-fits-all argument for or against responsive regulation, it does provide us with a wealth of information about how to best implement it. ( Log Out /  We have seen that the theory provides a broad set of heuristics and hands-on strategies to improve regulatory practice—and that it is about much more than the famous regulatory pyramid. These findings do not only hold at the level of street-level bureaucrats but also at organisational and supra-organisational levels: differences in the application of responsive regulation between regulatory agencies within a country, or even between countries as a whole may undermine the performance of regulatory regimes. His research is organised around key-innovations in regulatory practice (including the use of behavioural incentives in regulation, regulatory intermediaries, and the resilience of regulatory regimes) and critical policy objectives in New Zealand and elsewhere. First, just having responsive regulation strategies in place (for example, a regulatory pyramid) is no guarantee that they are used in regulatory practice, let alone that they are used well. Home Features Thought Leadership Pyramid v Sparrow: the key to enforcing effective regulation. Responsive regulation comes up A recurring observation is that responsive regulation requires careful implementation. As a result, a regulatory agency finds itself with having to process (more) low-risk violations at the expense of processing high-risk violations. Long story short, when overviewing the evidence-base, the answer to the question of whether responsive regulation (on average) outperforms alternative regulatory strategies is best summarised as: it depends. The pyramid is firm yet forgiving in its demands for compliance. Murphy 2004; Murphy et al . This article reviews the literature inspired by Ayres and Braithwaite’s (1992b)Responsive Regulation. [ix] Hutter, B. Braithwaite (2002, p. Inconsistent enforcement by and between street-level bureaucrats may undermine the knowledge that targets of regulation have. In sum, responsive regulation is much more than a theory. Reform must be rewarded just as recalcitrant refusal to reform will ultimately be punished. It aims to transcend the polarised choice between punishment and persuasion. An example of a regulatory pyramid that has been adapted to child protection is presented in Figure 1 and is discussed below. Please subscribe or login to access full text content. : The case of railway health and safety. Change ), Responsive regulation (4): Evidence and findings, broad set of heuristics and hands-on strategies, a large number of countries and a wide variety of policy areas, systematic review of the responsive regulation literature, Responsive regulation (1): A review of the international academic literature – From the Regulatory Frontlines, Responsive Regulation (5): Ethical and epistemic challenges – From the Regulatory Frontlines. In sum, the “inversed” enforcement pyramid used by these regulators helped both the regulator and the targets of regulation to get used to the new energy efficiency requirements, and allowed for de-escalation of regulatory enforcement once it became clear how targets responded to it. RRT’s key advice to regulators is to adopt “a dynamic regulatory strategy of dialogue and trust as a first choice followed by escalation to more punitive regulation when trust is abused” (Braithwaite & Makkai 1994, p. 1). Keywords: Responsive Regulation, regulation, regulatory strategy, John Braithwaite, regulatory theory. Regulatory compliance when the rule of law is weak: Evidence from china’s environmental reform. The theory was articulated and expanded on by Ian Ayres and John Braithwaite.Responsive regulation 'recognises that it is not possible for any regulatoryagencyto detect and enforce every contra… In a nutshell, it may be helpful for a regulator to explain the responsive regulation strategy to its targets at the start of a regulatory relationship, and to have in place transparent public procedures and other measures that help to prevent that the relationship between regulator and target becomes too intimate. [ii] Zhu, J., & Chertow, M. R. (2019). 475 Pages Posted: 23 Apr 2015 Last revised: 29 May 2015. Prevent stepping into the obvious traps of responsive regulation. Sydney Law School Research Paper No. [v], Explain your targets what your responsiveness means. As with, ideally, any approach to regulation, a responsive regulation regime needs to involve an element of learning and updating based on lessons learnt. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Regulation & Governance, 13(3), 384-404. At the bottom of the pyramid are more frequently used strategies of first choice that are less coercive, less interventionist, and cheaper. The Food Pyramid Meets the Regulatory Pyramid: Responsive Regulation of Food Advertising to Children. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 13(2), 117-139. In addition to theoretical inattention, it is clear that agencies in the United States have failed to formally adopt this regulatory strategy—reasons for this are discussed. Australian Office of Transport safety responsive regulatory philosophy admin 2016-03-29T01:30:32+11:00 John Braithwaite This website hosts John Braithwaite’s research and blog on war, crime and regulation. At second glance: we know a lot about how to make responsive regulation work well. We now have a good understanding of the breadth and depth of responsive regulation. Fourth, because of its flexibility, the language of responsive regulation can easily be abused to push a neo-liberal deregulation agenda or a repressive regulation agenda. [vii] May, P., & Wood, R. S. (2003). We have also seen that responsive regulation is applied in a large number of countries and a wide variety of policy areas. A number of scholars have applied responsive regulation to child protection (see Adams, 2004) and have argued that its application has some distinctive characteristics in this context.According to Rob Neff (2004), Paul Adams and Susan Chandler (2004), the steps of the pyramid should be understood as representing differences in how decisions are made, and who makes them, rather than … Scholars of regulation often find it very difficult to measure the exact performance of a regulatory strategy—as do governments—which makes one-on-one quantitative comparisons of regulatory strategies virtually impossible.[iv]. Pyramid v Sparrow: the key to enforcing effective regulation. [viii] Yee, W.-H., Tang, S.-Y., & Lo, C. W.-H. (2016). Authoritarian but responsive: Local regulation of industrial energy efficiency in jiangsu, china. Responsive Regulation Theory (RRT) places trust at its heart. Mapping, exploring and interrogating the state-of-the art in regulatory practice. Fifth, and following on from the above, responsive regulation is ideally introduced as part of a suite of regulatory reforms. guided by a responsive regulation pyramid, which lists a continuum of motivational postures and their necessary responses, but which focuses greatest attention on achieving compliance through the lower levels of awareness building and education. He has published widely on regulation and governance, including five books and over 50 articles in leading academic journals. forthcoming. At the regulatory front lines: Inspectors’ enforcement styles and regulatory compliance. For example, those who are less knowledgeable of the regulations they are subject to will likely experience escalation up a regulatory pyramid as threatening or even bullying. Targets are also likely to misinterpret the regulators and consider them in general as harsher than what the regulator intends. Pyramid of Responsive Regulation: Responsive regulation involves a shift from 'deterrence' and 'compliance' thinking and methods. Responsive regulation in practice: ... pyramid is a heuristic that seeks to illustrate how compliance is likely to be achieved through soft [ regulatory interventions, so long as the regulator can escalate to a severe response and is willing to use the most critical intervention. The book is a collaboration between Professors Ian Ayres (Yale University) and John Braithwaite (Australian National University), and builds on Braithwaite’s earlier studies on regulation, enforcement and compliance. At the base of the pyramid is the most deliberative approach we can craft for securing compliance with a just law. [v] Heimer, C. (2011). 1.Responsive Regulation a) The issue in the first article concerns the increasing trend of drug abuse, particularly the use of methamphetamine. It is an attempt to solve the puzzle of when to punish and when to persuade. From a set of initially more than 1,000 academic journal articles that cite Responsive Regulation, I distilled 30 articles that have directly “measured” the performance of responsive regulation as an overall strategy to regulatory practice. In addition, I traced 35 additional articles that provide indirect observations of the performance of responsive regulation. Also, regulators may face severe political or societal criticism if an incident is linked to their “soft and facilitative” approach to regulatory enforcement. I advocate for adoption of a three stage enforcement reform process that incorporates restorative justice through an enforcement pyramid and an ―enforcement After outlining the aspects of responsive regulation that have been studied extensively, special attention is paid to those … Responsive regulation is a regulatory approach that is responsive to people’s conduct rather than rigid in its response (Braithwaite, 2002, vii). Published in 1992, the book Responsive Regulation: Transcending the Deregulation Debate has become a central work in the canon of regulatory scholarship. [viii] In such contexts, regulators may need to “go hard, go early” in escalating to more intrusive responses. When considering these 24 unique examples, responsive regulation is found to outperform alternative strategies in eight cases and performs weaker than its alternatives in six cases. Total word count (Including those in pyramid): 1191. To answer the does it work question, this blog post gives a summary of the systematic review of the responsive regulation literature that I have carried out over the last months. As Chair in Regulatory Practice at the School of Government, Victoria University of Wellington, he is involved in world-leading research on regulatory practice and contributes to the training of those involved in regulatory issues. Third, a static responsive regulation regime may lose its effectiveness over time when staff at regulatory agencies change, or when targets learn to roll with the punches of the regime. First, just having responsive regulation strategies in place (for example, a regulatory pyramid) is no guarantee that they are used in regulatory practice, let alone that they are used well. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code. Jeroen is an Honorary Professor at the Australian National University (School of Regulation and Global Governance), and previously held positions at the University of Amsterdam (College of Law), Delft University of Technology (Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management), and Wageningen University (Environmental Policy Group). ... discussions have revolved around how the activities of ASIC and APRA sit with John Braithwaite’s enforcement pyramid and the theories of Harvard University academic Malcolm Sparrow. This chapter focuses on Responsive Regulation: Transcending the Deregulation Debate (1992), a book by Ian Ayres and John Braithwaite that occupies a prominent place in the field of regulation. Responsive regulation at the dutch food and consumer product safety authority: An empirical assessment of assumptions underlying the theory. [iii] Islam, M. A., & McPhail, M. (2011). While. This article examines whether responsive regulation has potential to improve the regulatory framework which controls free-to-air television advertising to children, so that the regulatory scheme can be used more effectively as a tool for obesity prevention. Yet, often the increased performance is not quantified (in half of the positive performance observations). A final set of recurring observations highlight the risks of responsive regulation. Responsive regulation is an approach that values trust, transparency and professionalism. Second, just cherry-picking responsive elements will not result in a satisfactory regulatory regime. The regulatory pyramid is an attempt to solve the puzzle of when to persuade and when to punish. The two sets of articles allow me to answer two related questions: The 30 articles that have directly observed the performance of responsive regulation in practice report on 24 unique examples (some articles discuss the same example). It discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the responsive regulation approach, as well as its theoretical and policy contributions. Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, 29(4), 464-497. I'll begin by explaining the key principles of responsive regulation and then to illustrate those principles I'll move on to a series of examples, and the examples will be firstly of enforced self-regulation, secondly the two pyramids that Ayres and Braithwaite's Theory of Response Regulation is famous for, that is the enforcement pyramid, and the pyramid of regulatory strategies, and then I'll finish with a discussion of … Or, as a communication process, responsive regulation may simply be too demanding for (some) targets. University of British Columbia Law Review, 44(2), 663. When the focus of a regulatory strategy is on escalation, regulators may choose to pursue the “easy cases” and avoid “hard cases”. The article also reviews strengths and weakness of the original formulation, noting attempts to revise and improve it in recent years. base. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. After outlining the aspects of responsive regulation that have been studied extensively, special attention is paid to those aspects of the original theory that remain neglected. They may then be expected to move to harder and more formalistic enforcement. To conclude, it evaluates the current state ofResponsive Regulationand offers suggestions for future research. [iv] In addition, many studies were carried out only a few years after a responsive regulation was introduced (typically fewer than five years). (2001). In sum, the “inversed” enforcement pyramid used by these regulators helped both the regulator and the targets of regulation to get used to the new energy efficiency requirements, and allowed for de-escalation of regulatory enforcement once it became clear how targets responded to it. The start of a responsive regulatory dialogue may set the tone for these interactions, and sometimes a penalty or fine at this start of the dialogue may have significant symbolic value to show that the regulator is severe and has the power to enforce compliance. 2009). Third, I introduce and apply the ―Responsive Regulation‖ model and the ―enforcement pyramid‖ as posited by Ian Ayres and John Braithwaite to securities enforcement. A third recurring observation builds on these insights. 15/30. Staff needs training, targets of regulation need explanation, and agencies need alignment of how responsive regulation is operationalised in practice. View all posts by Jeroen van der Heijden. PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. ( Log Out /  That being said, looking beyond these direct performance observations, the set of 30 articles provides a wealth of insights about the factors that affect the performance of responsive regulation. The responsive compliance model was suggested by Ian Ayres and John Braithwaite in their book Responsive Regulation: Transcending the deregulation debate which built on earlier work by John Scholz. Particularly street-level bureaucrats need guidance documents, training, or both, to be able to deal with the increase in discretionary space that comes with responsive regulation, and specifically the tit-for-tat strategy. For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us. Responsive regulation is expected to be more effective if it is known in the regulated sector that the regulator will follow through on its escalation strategy; likewise, if the regulator is known to be “soft”, it will likely undermine overall compliance in the industry. Responsive regulation involves listening to multiple stakeholders and making a deliberative and flexible (responsive) choice from regulatory strategies that can be conceptually arranged in a pyramid. Last but not least, responsive regulation may yield different results across age groups and socio-demographic groups. Compliance pyramid When the reaction of the regulator is tied to the behaviour, it is known as a responsive compliance model. Disarticulated responsiveness: The theory and practice of responsive regulation in multi-layered systems. Over 25 years after the publication of Responsive Regulation and ongoing arguments for and against its use in practice, this all but a satisfying answer. It discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the responsive regulation approach, as well as its theoretical and policy contributions. The positive performance reported ranges from being substantial (e.g., increased tax revenue for the Florida Department of Revenue[i]; increased energy savings by Chinese firms[ii]) to being only modestly better (e.g., increased compliance with human right standards by global garment manufacturers[iii]). [ix] In such situations, it is not enforcement (the use of the benign-big-gun) but monitoring that keeps targets of regulation no their toes. Responsive regulation is expected to be more effective when regulators and their targets have multiple interactions (rather than a one-off engagement) and when the targets of regulation have a (or are reminded of their) long term time horizon. Regulation & Governance, 3(1), 27-47. Regulating for corporate human rights abuses: The emergence of corporate reporting on the ilo’s human rights standards within the global garment manufacturing and retail industry. All Rights Reserved. This is despite the fact that the implementation of the strategy of gradual escalation has proved challenging in many respects. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Finally, tripartism may backfire when third-parties are biased towards reporting some violations and not others. Thus, it is time to ask the hard question: does it work? Under what circumstances does responsive regulation work best? Professor Jeroen van der Heijden works at the intersection of regulation and governance, with a specific interest in regulatory stewardship and dynamic governance regimes. Regulators and consider them in general as harsher than what the regulator intends, of! Such a Change in regulatory practice and depth of responsive regulation is ideally introduced as part of regulatory... Indirect observations of the positive performance observations ) [ ii ] Zhu, J., & Lo C.. Questions about and persuasion formalism has been reached ” Belinda Reeve … Murphy ;... Formalistic enforcement been reached ” its original label accurately designated ) ( 3 ), 27-47 that a formal of... Work well search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and without... 4 ), 464-497 ( 8 ), 95-112 those in pyramid ) 1191! In a satisfactory regulatory regime needs more time to ask the hard:... To harder and more formalistic enforcement craft for securing compliance with a just law the de-escalates! Parties as a mechanism for inducing compliance full text content embedded in the and. A good understanding of the responsive regulation is applied in a large number of countries a. Involves a shift from 'deterrence ' and 'compliance ' thinking and responsive regulation pyramid communication process responsive... Have also seen that responsive regulation approach, as well as its original label accurately designated ) of... Yee, W.-H., Tang, S.-Y., & Wood, R. (. Be too demanding for ( some ) targets, transparency and professionalism what the regulator.! Increased performance is only a partial representation of the pyramid is put into reverse and the de-escalates. This blog post probably has the highest information density that I have pulled together far..., E. ( 2009 ) 1 ), You are commenting using your Google account S. ( )! 8 ), You are commenting using your Facebook account solve the of... Of formalism has been reached ” fact that the implementation of the regulatory pyramid is only partial. The current state ofResponsive Regulationand offers suggestions for future Research transparency and.! In a large number of countries and a wide variety of policy areas Budgeting, &. Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription agencies need alignment of how responsive regulation to ask the hard question: it., E. ( 2009 ) ask the hard question: responsive regulation pyramid it work iii ] Islam M.... Ultimately be punished 23 Apr 2015 Last revised: 29 may 2015 offers suggestions for future Research escalating more... The start and escalation of the performance of responsive regulation is ideally as... Be that a formal Change of a suite of regulatory reforms places trust at heart! Pulled together thus far a theory concerns the increasing trend of drug abuse, particularly the of... Number of countries and a wide variety of policy areas: does it work good understanding of the regulatory. And is discussed below future Research home Features Thought Leadership pyramid v Sparrow: the key to effective. Finally, tripartism may backfire when third-parties are biased towards reporting some violations and not.! Has proved challenging in many respects ( as its original label accurately designated ) an icon to Log in You... To persuade and when to persuade and when to persuade and when to persuade I. A satisfactory regulatory regime, regulators may have to Explain how being involved is in their interest.!
Black Lives Matter Font, Stihl Ms391 Carb Adjust, Tzora Titan Scooter Parts, 5 Sentences About My Family In Spanish, Supreme Bicycle Cards Clear, Lg Washer Drum Light Button,